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Understanding Male Fertility: Causes, Care, and Seeking Help — Dr Navdeep Singh Pannu

Male fertility represents a cornerstone of reproductive health, embodying the hopes and aspirations of aspiring parents worldwide, says fertility specialist Dr Navdeep Singh Pannu. By unravelling the intricacies of male infertility, adopting preventive measures, and embracing avenues for seeking assistance, couples can navigate fertility challenges with resilience and resolve.

Dr Navdeep Singh Pannu.

From my years of experience, I have witnessed a range of responses from men when faced with infertility issues, spanning from subtle dismissiveness to outright criticism towards their partners.

In my practice, I have come to recognise that men equally play a significant role in infertility cases.

Through this article, I aim to shed light on the various factors contributing to male infertility and discuss potential treatment approaches.

Infertility remains a complex and often misunderstood issue, with male factors playing a significant role.

As we delve into the intricacies of male fertility, it becomes evident that a comprehensive understanding of its causes, preventive measures, and avenues for seeking assistance is imperative.

Causes Of Male Infertility

Male infertility is a multifaceted condition influenced by various genetic, physiological, and environmental factors.

Sperm disorders, encompassing issues such as low sperm count (oligozoospermia), poor motility (asthenozoospermia), and abnormal morphology (teratozoospermia), are among the primary culprits.

These abnormalities can arise from genetic predispositions, chromosomal abnormalities, or developmental defects, interfering with the production, quality, and motility of sperm.

Furthermore, hormonal imbalances, such as disruptions in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, can impair testicular function and testosterone production, contributing to male infertility.

Varicoceles, characterised by enlarged veins within the scrotum, represent another prevalent cause of male infertility.

This condition disrupts normal testicular temperature regulation, leading to impaired sperm production and quality.

Additionally, reproductive tract blockages resulting from infections, surgeries (such as vasectomy), or structural abnormalities can hinder sperm transport, further exacerbating fertility challenges.

Beyond physiological factors, lifestyle choices and environmental exposures exert significant impacts on male reproductive health.

Occupational hazards, including exposure to toxins, pesticides, and excessive heat, pose substantial threats to sperm production and quality.

Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and sedentary behaviour have also been linked to diminished sperm quality and fertility.

Taking Care Of Male Fertility

Proactive measures aimed at safeguarding male fertility encompass a holistic approach to health and wellbeing.

Maintaining a healthy weight through a balanced diet and regular exercise fosters optimal sperm production and overall reproductive health.

Antioxidant-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts, provide essential nutrients that support sperm quality and motility.

Moreover, stress management strategies play a crucial role in preserving male fertility.

Chronic stress can disrupt hormonal balance, impede sperm production, and compromise sexual function.

Therefore, incorporating stress-reducing practices such as mindfulness, meditation, and relaxation techniques is essential for promoting reproductive health.

Smoking cessation and responsible alcohol consumption are paramount in male fertility care.

Smoking has been associated with decreased sperm counts, impaired sperm motility, and DNA damage, while excessive alcohol intake can disrupt testosterone production and erectile function.

By quitting smoking and moderating alcohol consumption, men can significantly improve their reproductive health and fertility outcomes.

Furthermore, awareness of medication side effects and environmental toxins is crucial for mitigating potential threats to male fertility.

Certain medications, including antidepressants, antiandrogens, and anabolic steroids, can interfere with hormone production and sperm quality.

Occupational exposures to toxins, pesticides, and elevated temperatures can also impair sperm production and viability.

Therefore, consulting healthcare professionals and adhering to safety protocols in occupational settings are essential for minimizing risks to male fertility.

Preventive Measures

Preventing male infertility requires a multifaceted approach that encompasses awareness, education, and proactive health management.

Safe sexual practices, including regular STI screenings and condom use, are fundamental for protecting male reproductive health and preventing fertility-related complications.

Workplace safety measures, including proper ventilation, protective equipment, and adherence to safety protocols, are essential for minimising occupational exposures to toxins and environmental hazards.

By implementing stringent safety measures and advocating for workplace health policies, employers can create safer environments that promote male reproductive health and fertility preservation.

Furthermore, lifestyle modifications such as maintaining a healthy weight, engaging in regular physical activity, and adopting a balanced diet rich in antioxidants and essential nutrients are vital for optimising male fertility.

Avoiding smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and illicit drug use further supports reproductive health and enhances fertility outcomes.

Limiting scrotal exposure to elevated temperatures, such as avoiding hot tubs, saunas, and prolonged laptop use, is crucial for preserving sperm quality and viability.

Additionally, wearing loose-fitting underwear and clothing can promote optimal testicular temperature regulation, further mitigating heat-induced damage to sperm.

Seeking Help

Despite adherence to preventive measures and lifestyle modifications, some couples may encounter persistent challenges in conceiving.

Seeking professional evaluation from fertility specialists becomes imperative in such instances.

Fertility clinics offer comprehensive assessments, including semen analysis, hormonal evaluations, and diagnostic imaging modalities, to elucidate underlying causes of infertility.

Armed with diagnostic insights, fertility specialists devise personalised treatment plans tailored to address specific infertility etiologies.

Assisted reproductive techniques (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF), offer viable pathways to parenthood for couples grappling with infertility.

Furthermore, emerging advancements in reproductive medicine, including intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE), expand the therapeutic armamentarium, offering renewed hope to couples navigating infertility challenges.

Moreover, emotional support, counselling, and community resources play integral roles in the fertility journey, empowering couples to navigate challenges with resilience and hope.

By fostering open communication, mutual support, and access to comprehensive care, healthcare providers and support networks can facilitate positive outcomes and enhance the overall experience of infertility treatment.


Male fertility represents a cornerstone of reproductive health, embodying the hopes and aspirations of aspiring parents worldwide.

By unravelling the intricacies of male infertility, adopting preventive measures, and embracing avenues for seeking assistance, couples can navigate fertility challenges with resilience and resolve.

It is a journey characterised by compassion, collaboration, and unwavering determination — a testament to the indomitable human spirit in its quest for life’s greatest joy: parenthood.

Dr Navdeep Singh Pannu, a fertility specialist, currently serves as the medical director at TMC Fertility and Women’s Specialist Centre in Puchong. With over a decade of experience, he has assisted couples of all ages and from various parts of the world in building the families they have always wanted. Additionally, he is a consultant obstetrician, gynaecologist, and laparoscopic surgeon.

  • This is the personal opinion of the writer or publication and does not necessarily represent the views of Ova.

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